The vertical lines on the staff mark the measures. Measures are used to divide and organize music. The
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determines how many beats can be in a measure. The thick double bars mark the beginning and ends of a piece of music. Measures are sometimes marked with numbers to make navigating a piece easier. The first measure would be measure one, the second measure two and so on.
Different pitches are named by letters. The musical alphabet is, in ascending order by pitch, A, B, C, D, E, F and G. After G, the cycle repeats going back to A. Each line and space on the staff represents a different pitch. The lower on the staff, the lower the pitch of the note. Notes are represented by little ovals on the staff. Depending on the clef (discussed below), the position of each note on the staff corresponds to a letter name.
Notes are centered on the lines or in the spaces between the lines. Stems on notes above the middle line trail down from the left of the note. Stems on notes below the middle line stick up on the right of the note. Stems on notes on the line usually go down except when adjacent notes have flags that go up. Note stems are usually one octave (eight successive lines and spaces) long. When two melodies occupy the same staff, the stems for the notes in one melody are written up and the stems for notes in the other are written down.
Ledger lines extend above and below the staff, allowing for higher or lower notes to be shown than would otherwise fit on the staff. These lines follow the same musical alphabet pattern as the staff does. Think of them as just extra lines and spaces on the end of the staff.
The stems of notes on ledger lines extend either up or down towards the middle line.
All notes have length. However, the number of beats they get depends on the time signature , so only relative note durations will be discussed here.
This graphic shows a heirarchy of note values.
At the top is a whole note (1). A half note is half the duration of a whole note, so a whole note is as long as two half notes (2). Likewise, a half note is as long as two quarter notes (3). A quarter note is as long as two eighth notes (4), and an eighth note is as long as two sixteenth notes (5).
Sixteenth notes (right) and eighth notes (left) may also look like this. Single sixteenth and eighth notes have flags, many sixteenth and eighth notes combine flags into connecting bars.Examinations
The FE exam is administered by NCEES throughout the year.
The PE examination is an 8-hour test and is given twice a year at several locations in Texas (certain PE tests are given only once per year). The PE exam testing dates are scheduled for April and October. Individuals may register with NCEES to take the FE examination without submitting an application to the board. Applicants with appropriate experience must apply and get approval to take the PE exam.
Click here for more information on exams.
Experience Basic Requirements You must meet the following experience requirements prior to application with the Board: 1. With an accredited engineering degree you must have a minimum of 4 years of active practice in engineering work, of a character satisfactory to the Board, indicating that you are competent to be placed in responsible charge of such work. 2. With a non-accredited degree you must have a minimum of 8 years of the same type of work required of those candidates with an accredited engineering degree.Experience
Types of Experience During your first few years of experience after graduation, it is imperative that you place an emphasis on gaining experience that is acceptable for licensing purposes. Failure to become licensed can severely limit your potential professional growth.Types of Experience
This experience must demonstrate a clear use of your engineering knowledge, engineering education, and engineering judgment to perform the task, be progressive, of an increasing standard of quality and responsibility in one dominant discipline. Although it is recommended that the engineering experience be obtained while working under the supervision of a licensed professional engineer, this is not a requirement for licensure. Experience that is considered most acceptable for licensure purposes generally falls into one of two categories: design or analysis. Design - The most common type of acceptable experience is design. The common denominator in all design projects is the selection and use of recognized engineering principles and methodology to determine a solution to a problem. The final result of design work will almost always be details, plans, or specifications for use in creating a finished product. Analysis - The second common type of acceptable experience is analysis. Common features of analysis activities include the use of mathematical modeling and acceptable data collection techniques to assess a problem, and the act of making a learned recommendation based on analytical findings. An analysis activity will almost always result in a conclusive report or recommendation. It should be noted here that many other types of activities would also be acceptable if your participation in those activities can be described in terms of design or analysis. By asking yourself if you can describe your activity in terms such as "I calculated..., I designed..., I analyzed..., I recommended...," you can almost assure yourself that you are describing design and analysis.
Time Magazine put Donald Trump on its cover last year. The Forward’s Jake Romm called the cover shot a covert act of political subversion. It became the most-read article in the history of our digital publication. A year later, his analysis rings even truer than ever.
Time Magazine’s annual “Person of the Year” announcement is, year after year, grossly misunderstood. Time Magazine is clear on its sole criterion – “the person who had the greatest influence, for better or worse, on the events of the year” –yet, do a simple search on Twitter and you will find countless people who seem to think that the “Person of the Year” selection is tantamount to an endorsement. Previous winners have included Joseph Stalin (1939, 1942), Ayatollah Khomeini (1979), Adolf Hitler (1938), and other figures who I think it is safe to assume the Time staff does not endorse.
This year, it should come as no surprise that President-elect Donald Trump was chosen to grace the cover of Time’s annual issue (shot by Jewish photographer
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). “For better or worse,” Trump, during his campaign and now after his election, has certainly been among the greatest influences on the events of the year. For clues as to how Time feels about that question — is it “for better or worse?” — we can look to the image chosen for the cover of the issue. The decisions that Time made regarding how to photograph Trump reveal a layered, nuanced field of references that place the image among, in this viewer’s opinion, the magazine’s greatest covers.
In order to deconstruct the image, let’s focus on three key elements (leaving aside the
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in ‘Time’ that makes it look like Trump has red horns): the color, the pose, and the chair:
Notice how the colors appear slightly washed out, slightly muted, soft. The palette creates what we might call a vintage effect. The image’s sharpness and detail reveal the contemporaneity of the picture, but the color suggests an older type of film, namely, Kodachrome.
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, the recently discontinued film produced by Kodak, was designed to create accurate color reproduction in the early 1900’s. It was immensely popular between the late 30’s and 70s, and its distinctive look defines our common visual concept of nostalgia.
By reproducing a Kodachrome color palette, the Time cover makes us reimagine the cover as if it were an image from the era of Kodachrome’s mass popularity. (Where your mind goes when thinking about leaders from the era of
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, segregation, and the Cold War era is up to you.) This visual-temporal shift in a sense mirrors a lot of the drives that fueled Trump’s rise. Trump ran a campaign based on regressive policies and attitudes —anti-environmental protection, anti-abortion, pro-coal, etc. This election was not just about regressive policy choices, but also about traditional values (defined primarily by the Christian right), about nostalgia for American greatness and security, about nostalgia for a pre-globalized world.
Fact 5: There Are Tons Of Different Keratin Treatments For Different Hair Types It's not one-size-fits-all. In fact, you don't want a salon that only offers a single keratin treatment, because it's probably not the best one for your texture and thickness. “If you use the same formula on fine hair that you do on thick, it'll just be flat and stick to your scalp!” Pena explains. And on the flip side, if the formula's not strong enough, it'll be like you just spent $400 on...absolutely nothing.Fact 5: There Are Tons Of Different Keratin Treatments For Different Hair Types
Fact 6: Keratin Works On Straight Hair, Too Got coarse, thick, frizzy hair that's straight? Keratin could be your new favorite thing. A light treatment can make it shinier and smoother, so you only have bed head if you actually want it.Fact 6: Keratin Works On Straight Hair, Too
Fact 7: Keratin Straighteners Aren't Relaxers Unlike keratin, relaxers are permanent. They change your texture, so you have to want stick-straight hair forever—or at least until your roots need touching up. They're also easier to do at home, whereas keratin treatments are usually in salons.Fact 7: Keratin Straighteners Aren't Relaxers
Fact 8: Keratin Straightening Isn't (Or At Least Shouldn't Be) A Super-Intensive Process A stylist combs a bunch of it into your strands, leaves it on 'til your follicles are good and coated, then flat irons your hair to seal it in. Older formulas require you not to wash or style your hair for 72 hours, which is why you should find a place that uses newer no-wait straighteners if you can.Fact 8: Keratin Straightening Isn't (Or At Least Shouldn't Be) A Super-Intensive Process
Fact 9: You Can, In Fact, Use Keratin Treatments On Dyed Or Bleached Hair They can actually make bleached hair feel healthier. The same doesn't hold true for other straighteners, though. “If your hair's dyed, stay away from flat irons, relaxers, or Japanese straightening!” Pena warns.Fact 9: You Can, In Fact, Use Keratin Treatments On Dyed Or Bleached Hair
Fact 10: Maintenance Is The Key To Keratin Success
If you want your fancy new shininess to last, you might have to drop your regular shampoo and stop washing so much altogether. You can shampoo three times a week max, but there better not be actual suds involved. “Stay away from cleansers that bubble!” Pena advises. “If your shampoo has a detergent ingredient like Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLS), which is literally found in laundry soap, it'll just strip your hair!” (Good sulfate-free lines:
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and Conditioner .) Also no good? Salt water and chlorine. So surf spray's not an option, and make sure to coat your hair with a protective cream or oil before you make any literal waves.